So, this is not really administrative, but since I searched very long for a solution, I wanted to document it at least for myself. All information can also be found on developer.android.com. First step is setting up the android-SDK. I assume you have installed the android-sdk-update-manager. Make sure you are root and have the android executable in your path (just navigate to the folder where you have the update-manager installed). Then run android, this should bring up a GUI-Application. There you select available packages, select the Android Repository and click on Install selected. After a bit of clicking around you should have updated your sdk and installed the android repository, there you select the sdks you need and install again. Now you're ready to set up your working directory. Run android list targets to view available targets - if this list is empty something went wrong in the previous steps. Remember the id of your target, create a directory for your project and run:
android create project --package com.example.hellandroid --activity HelloAndroid --target <your target id> --path HelloAndroid
Make sure you change the parameters to your needs and voila, you should have a project directory. In src you now can write your application. In order to test it on your device, run ant debug in the project-folder, attach your device via usb, make sure adb is connected and invoke adb -d install bin/HelloAndroid-debug.apk (or whatever your Project is named). Now you should be able to run it on your attached device.
I hope this helps and that I'll find some time to delve deeper into Android development, now that I can use proper tools like vim, instead of relying on Eclipse. ;)